Egg donation definition
Egg donation appeared not so long ago. This reproductive medicine breakthrough was performed in the 20th century, in the early nineteen-eighties. The first child that was born due to egg donation came in our world in Australia. Soon afterwards doctors in South California emulated the success of their Australian colleagues.
Egg donation has started to have a higher and higher demand since it became the best alternative for child adoption.
Women who gave up their dream to become a mother received one more chance to try and not to wait too long. Moreover, it allows to have a genetic bond to the baby. It is a huge benefit not only for traditional couples but also for homosexual ones. That’s why this infertility treatment approach has become widely available. But along with all the undeniable advantages, egg donation raises a lot of challenging ethical questions and in many countries is still forbidden. To understand better the egg donation processes it is necessary to delve into the definition of egg donation.
Female egg (oocytes) donation is a part of assisted reproduction treatment approach, usually an in vitro fertilization, when a woman consents voluntary to give or sell her egg follicles to be inseminated with intended father’s or donor’s sperm. After the eggs are retrieved from the donor’s body, the egg donation process is considered to be completed. There are two ways of their use: they can be used fresh in ivf or frozen .If the eggs are used right after the removal they are placed on a special dish together with the fastest and the strongest sperm. The sperm can be injected into the oocyte directly if it shows low motility. It happens, when both partners have infertility issues but want to be biological parents. When oocytes show the signs of fertilization, the embryos are transferred into recipients’ (an intended mother) uterus. Egg donation is also a type of gamete donation. The other type of gamete donation is sperm donation. Sperm donation definition is the voluntary act when a man agrees to provide his sperm on non-profitable or commercial basis to conceive a baby. As a rule, sperm is frozen after the donation and kept in a sperm bank.
Both egg and sperm donation usually raise mixed feelings in society. Since they, on one hand, are honorable acts, when they help couples who suffer from infertility issues. But , on the other , it is still an human exploitation with possible negative consequence. Commercial donation has changed the fundamental meaning of donation at all, having turned the gametes into commodities. And the last, but not least is the child’s inability to trace his or her lineage. This contradiction prevents the government of many countries from legalizing both types of gamete donation.